Behavioral Compensations Alter Results of Exercise Training
It is expected that an exercise program will yield results commensurate with the frequency, duration, intensity, and type of exercise one does. So a University of KY study wanted to determine exactly why some folks don’t get the expected results.
They had sedentary adults with BMI’s in the overweight to obese categories do 12-weeks of supervised exercise either 6 days/wk, 2 days/wk, or none at all. Various metabolic markers were measured before and after: changes in body fat and fat-free/lean muscle mass as measured by DEXA scans; resting basal metabolic rate (BMR), and fasting and post-meal levels of hunger and appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin, leptin, insulin, and glucagon peptide-1 (GLP-1.)
Obviously, the 6 d/wk group logged more exercise time/wk (320.5 mins) and expended more calories (2753.5/cal/wk) than the 2 d/wk group (1490.7 cal/wk.) As expected the former lost more fat during the 12-weeks.
Intriguingly, there were no group of differences in how many or what percent of calories were compensated for by consumption or reduced activity. “Exercise frequency, energy expended, duration, or intensity did not influence energy compensation.”
Leptin, however, appeared to be the only “independent predictor for energy compensation” where greater decreases predicted less compensation. That the 6/wk exercisers lost more body fat demonstrated that it requires a ton of exercise – especially in the 70-100% intensity range – to effect weight loss in the face of behavioral compensations that we tend to make as we start a training program. It does so via leptin management.
MSSE Apr. 2021
Exercise and Vaccines: A Symbiosis Made for Health
Exercise alone, if not taken to extremes, helps maintain a healthy immune system. In the days of covid, this is uplifting but not absolutely ensuring news. However, added to a vaccine, it appears those who are aerobically active get a better immunization response. It seems this booster effect is more robust for those over 60 than for younger adults, perhaps because the latter already have stronger immune systems.
Even a single, acute bout of arm exercise immediately prior to a vaccine may enhance the immune response to a vaccine that isn’t even that effective. (Oy, what scientists won’t do to get published, right?)
“Most of the current published literature suggests that exposure to either acute or chronic exercise significantly augments the immune response to vaccination,” according to the authors of a study in the journal Brain, Behavior, and Immunity (July 2014.)
Furthermore, it is well-known that exercise provides an analgesic effect against painful stimuli – like a needle – and reduces the normal reactions some have such as tenderness, swelling, reduced appetite, fever, and fatigue. The young females did 15 minutes of arm exercises in one study and either arm- or leg-exercises in another study before receiving an HPV shot and reported favorable symptoms over the course of 7 days.
Technogym Newsroom Oct. 2021